Polyakov is an Associate Research Professor at the NJIT Department of Computer Science & Cybersecurity Research Center. He is also a Principal Scientist at Duality Technologies Inc. His primary research interests are applied lattice-based cryptography, homomorphic encryption, and program obfuscation. He is a co-founder and core contributor to the open-source PALISADE Lattice Cryptography Library. Prior to joining NJIT, he worked as a research scientist at MIT CSAIL and held several senior-level industrial positions. His prior research dealt with time series analysis using statistical physics methods and mathematical modeling of membrane technology processes. He is a recipient of Moscow Mayor's Young Scientist Award (2005) and member of a winning team at the iDASH 2018 competition.