A year on from last year’s RSA Conference, we have seen a marked increase in the frequency, scale, sophistication and severity of malicious cyber-activity. High profile incidents like NotPetya and WannaCry have demonstrated the unprecedented level of global harm that such malicious activity can cause. So how do we effectively mitigate the burgeoning scale of threat that is now so publicly realising its potential to harm our national and economic interests. A technical response is only part of the answer, we need to renovate international policy to meet the challenges of digital connectivity and ensure we all reap the benefits. This is why Australia is working to implement an International Stability Framework for cyberspace. We are working with international partners to address the ever-expanding reach and sophistication of our adversaries, and to set clear expectations for appropriate behaviour in cyberspace. Through the Framework, we will promote five core measures to uphold a peaceful, secure and prosperous cyberspace: application of existing international law to cyberspace, implementing agreed norms of responsible state behaviour, deterring and responding to those who don’t follow the rules, implementing confidence building measures to build trust, and capacity building that enhances the ability of everyone to meet the challenges of cyberspace.